History of the Central Botanical Garden

The idea about organization of the Botanic Garden in Baku was offered for the first time in the 30-th years of the last century. In those years, Baku as large industry center and capital city of the republic was needed to be landscaped. As the Botanical garden is scientific institution, in 1932 at the Azerbaijan department of Caucasian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, under the leadership of P.V.Kovalskaya-Ilina gardening section was created, in which works were carried out on indoor and outdoor cultivation of plants. On July 3, 1934 at the specially allocated area in the mountainous part of Baku, an area of 80-100 hectares, it was laid the foundation of Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden.

The perspective plan of the main plot area of the
Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden

In 1935-1938 years, were started construction of building of Institute, glasshouses, greenhouses, accommodation for employees, workshops, farm buildings.

Beginning of construction and planting works

In 1935-1938 years, were started construction of building of Institute, glasshouses, greenhouses, accommodation for employees, workshops, farm buildings. Since the creation in 1936, the Botanical Garden was a department of the Institute of Botany up to its separation as an independent organization in 2000. Outstanding researcher of Caucasus flora academician A.A.Grossheim was the first director of the Institute of Botany. M.V.Brjezitski was appointed as the first director of the Botanic Garden. At that time, on garden plots along with the establishment of plant collections from the Azerbaijan flora, as well as research works of exotic, technical, and medicinal plants were conducted.

In 1937-1940 years, for use the allocated area for oil-extraction, area of the garden was limited by 16 hectares. In hard war years (1941-1945), in spite of suspension of the construction and delay in the introduction works, researches on studying of grassy, wood and shrubby plant species of native flora were continued. In 1948-1952 years, the Botanic Garden was headed by PhD Ahmed Sherbet oglu Hajiyev, PhD Mukhtar Ali oglu Rahimov. In those years, in order to expand the area of the garden, a new plot was allotted at the Ahmadli plateau and greening works were started there. But, in 1954, this plot in Ahmadli was given back and the main work continued at the main Botanical Garden’s area. .

In 1952, the director of the Botanic Garden was appointed PhD Gasim Farrukh oglu Akhundov, then in 1956 - PhD Vahid Jalal oglu Hajiyev. At the same time, wide planting works were conducted here. Since June 1957, as the director of the garden a graduate of the Leningrad Agriculture and Forestry Engineering Academy, an instructor of Agriculture Institute of Azerbaijan PhD Uzeyir Musa oglu Agamirov was assigned. Lack of irrigation in 1950-1960, was hindered the works of introduction. Construction of reservoir in 1960 and irrigation water supply contributed to considerable expansion of the Botanical Garden. During this period, 25 hectares of plots was attached to the existing 16-hectare, which led to an increase the garden's total area up to 41 hectares.

Əkin işlərinin başlanması

1960-1978 years were the heyday of the Garden. During these years, by Botanic Garden more than 10 thousand trees and shrubs and flowering plants (about 100 species) were allocated for landscaping Baku, Ganja, Sumgait cities and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, and also to the Greenery Office of Baku city and the industrial enterprises of Absheron (Baku household conditioner factory, AzerElectroterm, Radio- and Shipbuilding factories), as well as secondary schools and kindergartens. Thus the Botanic Garden was developed thanks to efforts of a pleiad of prominent botanists such as M. Brjezitski, I. Safarov, M. Mikayilov, R. Rahimova, A. Aliyev, S. Pityayev, U. Agamirov, M. Agamirova, M. Rahimov, K. Guliyev, A. Mesiyev, T. Kazimova, I. Qolniyeva, Sh.Babayeva, R.Babayev, J. Mirzaliyev, A. Iskenderov, N. Babayev, A. Bayramov, O. Ibadlı, M. Qurbanov, who were played a significant role in the history of the Botanical Garden. Since 1970, governmental activities on gardening of Absheron and Baku served further expansion of the work on the introduction of trees and shrub plants in the Botanic Garden. During these years plots were established in the new territory of the Botanical Garden according to principle of botanic-geographical regionalization. In 1977, under the leadership of the academician Hasan Aliyev a Special Commission was organized, which together with the Greening Trust of Baku city, and the scientists of National Academy of Sciences and the representatives of the Baku City Soviet the action plan for development of the Garden was prepared.

These measures were presented by the Academy of Sciences to the Council of Ministers and according to the decision of Council of Ministers the Reconstruction Trust of Baku city were assigned for improvement issues of the Botanical Garden. In this regard in 1978-1980 years a new impulse was given for arrangements Botanical Garden. At the end of 1980s, Doctor of Biological Sciences Arif Ali oglu Bayramov was appointed as director of the Botanic Garden. During these years by means of Baku Sovet there are began works on accomplishment of the Botanical Garden according to the decision of the Council of Ministers, but unfortunately, this work were carried out slowly, and after reconstruction of alleys and a square in front of the administrative building of work was stopped. In the late 80's and early 90's years, construction of planned major buildings, pools and so forth remained unfinished. Due to a shortage in the summer irrigation water, the greenhouses which remained without heat in winter time, and shortage of labor was lost part of a living collection, including such species as dahlias, chrysanthemums, gladioli, peonies, and a number of valuable woody, flowers, meadows and hothouse plants.

Garden’s alleys (1950th years)

By the decision № 7/2 of the Presidium of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences dated 02 June 2000 "About improvement of the activities of the Botanical Garden", Botanical Garden was brought out of structure of Institute of Botany and continued activities as an independent scientific research organization under the Department of Biological Sciences of the ANAS. On the basis of the decision № 22/9 of the Presidium of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences dated 22 November 2000, the Botanical Garden was renamed as "Central Botanical Garden of Azerbaijan NAS". The Charter, the Scientific Council and scientific structure of the Garden were approved. Beside employees of the Botanic Garden, the specialists of other scientific institutions and organization were included to a new Board of Scientific Council. The scientific researches in the Central Botanical Garden are carried out in the direction of “Studies of the biodiversity, principles and ways of their conservation, efficient use in Azerbaijan” within framework of “Protection of the gene pool and the introduction of plant species from the Azerbaijan flora”.

The building of the garden

At present day, Central Botanical Garden along with the laboratories "Trees and shrubs", "Rare and endangered plants", “Greenhouses Plants", "Floriculture" and "“Monitoring and conservation of plants", includes sectors "Seedage" and "Plant disease pest control". In the Central Botanical Garden among 126 employees work 25 scientific researchers of which 2 are corresponding members of ANAS, 4 Doctor of Sciences, and 14 PhDs. In recent years, 7 PhD theses and 4 doctoral theses had been defended by scientists of the garden, 7 scientists were entitled associate professor and 2 scientists professor.