Scientists and employees of Garden conducts wide research works in the field of study of biodiversity, introduction, investigation of biological and ecological characteristics, acclimatization, and creation of data bank of rare and threatened plants, decorative, medicinal, ether-oil and other useful plants that distributed in local flora and abroad in order to enrich the range of raw materials of plant resources and landscape-gardening types.

Central Botanical Garden engages in seed exchange with more than 130 Botanic Gardens of various countries of the world. At present, through these seeds more than 40 species of trees, shrubs and flowers were added into the collection of the Garden.

Currently, the Botanical Garden has a rich collection containing about 2000 species, forms and varieties of useful plants from different botanical and geographical regions of local and world flora.

In the collection there are about 250 species of trees and shrubs from the East Asian flora, of which nearly 30 species are cotoneasters, Japanese cryptomeria, deodar cedar, 20 species of decorative apple-trees, 25 species of barberry, maple, wild rose, hawthorn, cypress, thuja and etc.

In the collection exist also prickly fir-tree, a giant sequoia, magnolia grandiflora, about 30 species of hawthorn, ash from the North American flora; Lebanon cedar, arbutus, larch, a lot of species of labdanum (rockrose) species from the Mediterranean flora; chestnut oak, Eldar pine, ironwood, zelkova, holm oak, cork oak, silk acacia (albizia) and etc. from the Caucasian flora.

Currently, 149 species of rare and threatened geophytes of Caucasus flora found in the collection of the Botanical Garden were included in the "Red Book" of Azerbaijan and the former Soviet Union.

Over the years, adapted plants in the conditions of Azerbaijan such as aloe, saffron, barberry, asparagus, etc., and dozens of industrial, technical, medicinal, aromatic, food plants attract not only numerous visitors, but also entrepreneurs.

In the Central Botanical Garden was collected collection of the flower plants, including the bulbous plants such as dahlias, chrysanthemums, gladioli, tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, irises and about 530 rose varieties.

Central Botanical Garden liaises with more than 100 Botanic Gardens all over the world, exchanges seeds with them and receives seeds for introductions.